Hand-Work Markup Language (HWML) aims to describe instructions for human to make any kind of hand work, as a recipe.

Traditional style of recipe instractions describes the tasks in linear sequence, and any temporal relationships between the tasks are described in natural language.


Different from such styles of recipe, HWML enables to describe the instructions as a flow structure. It is also capable of machine-readable tag of trigger and delayed display (as an egg-timer).



A strict definition of HWML is provided by RELAX NG schema here.

Application and Samples

CHIFFON framework

See here

A sample of cooking recipe written in HWML

Sorry, we have currently only a Japanese Recipe. You can download it here.


How Does User’s Access to Object Make HCI Smooth in Recipe Guidance?
Atsushi Hashimoto, Jin Inoue, Takuya Funatomi, Michihiko Minoh
Cross-Cultural Design
Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 8528, 2014, pp 150-161

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